You can push serial data over the USB cable
The Arduino programming language Reference, organized into Functions, Variable and Constant, and Structure keywords.
Then you would have to send serial from a service consuming the SDK (or maybe its possible with a plugin?).
Not 100% sure what is the best way to send this data, often I like working with JSON, but JSON has a larger footprint than HEX or ASCII.
But in theory you could read JSON like this here: https://arduinojson.org/v6/example/parser/
You will have to consider if you wish to support more than 1 GPU etc.(when making your data model).
But of course as a first try you can try to make an service in your computer that just connects to the SDK, reads CPU temp.
Then you can try to just push serial data to Arduino: CPUTEMP_123
Thenyou have the read and you can split this on _
This is just a hello world though
But if you manage to do that, than you can continue to think about your data model and how to structure your data, if you need to support 1:n devices etc.